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If you work with substrate-spawning cichlids, one thing you'll immediately notice is that fry can be extremely small. It's all too easy to siphon them out accidentally when doing a water change.

I keep newly free-swimming fry from egg layers in tiny 2-gallon Rubbermaid restaurant containers and I use a mini-siphon I made myself to carefully clean the bottom of excess food and debris. Here's how to make one yourself.

You'll need:

  • One 12-14" piece of rigid aquarium airline tubing
  • One small piece of insulated #14 electrical wire 
  • A heat source (I use my gas stove)

Here's what to do . . .

 

THE BALD TAX BLOG

March 2012

I’m lazy, so here is a 2009 reproduced article I wrote.  Enjoy….

Aquarium Husbandry (and attempts at pronunciation) of

ex-Cichlasoma grammodes

Scott Womack (April 2009)

“Grammodes”

 

I can certainly type the name, but damned if I’m sure of its pronunciation.

 

In the past, I have written a couple of articles on species that I have kept and bred, and for those, I tried to perform as much research as possible so that I can at least pretend to know what I am writing about.  But I have searched high and low for a phonetic spelling of “grammodes” with no luck…and it’s kind of bugging me.  I have asked some of my fish keeping friends about the pronunciation of “that fish” and I have received the following (pardon my own crude phonetic spelling):

I really don't know why I tried this.

Today, while on a particularly boring conference call, I searched on iTunes using the keyword "cichlid" .

Wouldn't you know it, there is an album called Cichlid by the artist A Riley!

I only previewed one of the songs (they're all marked explicit) and its not really my taste.

There is one song called "Kill Myself" which I sometimes feel like doing when I can't get my fish to breed, but that's a story for another day.

Check out this link if you want to hear it for yourself.

If you've kept fish, no doubt you've also dealt with sick fish. If you have a fishroom full of healthy fish, you need to be careful when bringing in fish from the outside, from pet shops, swap meets and auctions. While quarantining is essential, you also need to be mindful that you don't inadvertently transfer disease from tank to tank when netting fish or changing water.

A few years ago, I visited my good friend Chuck Rambo in San Jose, CA. Chuck took me a large wholesaler in the Bay Area. We first checked out a cart which included a net and a small container of Net Soak. Before using the net in a new tank, you had to dip the net in the Net Soak and shake it out.

Net Soak is usually a solution of Potassium permangenate which is an oxidizer. It helps to prevent the transfer of disease organisms by oxidation. Unlike other oxidizers such as bleach, it is gentle on nets and your hands, and pretty safe to use. Net Soak prevents most bacteria from spreading, but not viruses. 

Marina Hang-On Breeding Box,Fellow GCCA Member Jason let me know about the Marina Hang-on Holding and Breeding Box, raving about how useful this piece of equipment is for raising baby fish.

In fact, Jason wanted me to test them out so he gave me one. I later acquired another one at the GCCA Holiday Party gift exchange, so I thought it was probably about time I checked it out.

The Marina Box is very much like an air-driven power filter that hangs on the outside of your tank. The construction is good and the material is very clear plastic measuring 9.5 W X 3.5W X 5 deep. I tested the Large size box. On Amazon, this product is about $21. Smaller version are in the $14 range. I believe some wholesales offer them for less.

The product comes with a divider so you can separate some fry or perhaps a smaller adult fish on each side. One nice feature is the offsets on the bottom which allow you to easily adjust the offset of the unit from the tank so that it hangs perpindicular to the side of the tank.

MUNDANE HELP FOR THE FISH ROOM

GCCA’S CICHLID CHATTER — MAY 1999

by Rick Borstein

These days, technology has invaded the fish room. Electronic heaters, exotic filtra- tion systems and a wide array of foods and medications are available to the aquarist. However, it is often the more mundane tools that help us the most.

Take for example, the bucket. Could you keep fish without one? I have my own favorite. It’s a Rubbermaid bucket that has wide pouring spout, comfortable handle, and holds about 2-1/2 gallons. It’s tan, so it looks clean even if it isn’t. I have several 5-gallon white buckets, too. They’re useful, but they don’t fit under the faucet of my utility sink very well and they are just too big to be used as often.

A recent find of mine is new kind lid for 5-gallon buckets called a Gamma Seal. You snap a lid ring on the bucket, then use the included screw-in top with rubber seal. It’s great for transporting fish because it is water tight, but easy to unscrew and net fish out. The screw lids are about six bucks and would be a great way to take fish to a show. I ordered mine from the Sportsman’s Guide catalog at 800.888.3006.

Another mundane tool that I use daily is a turkey baster. I use it for feeding brine shrimp, removing eggs and fry from filters and cleaning up fry tanks. It’s also fun to use as a “squirt gun” to drive away an over-protective cichlid when you’re trying to snatch a slate full of eggs.

I keep a flashlight in my fish room. Most of my tanks are planted, so it can be pretty difficult to see if a spawn has taken place. Recently, I noticed that my Neolamprologus gracilus were behaving a bit differently. I couldn’t see any activity, but had a hunch that they were getting ready to spawn. The next day I looked again and couldn’t detect a thing. Time to grab the flashlight! With the help of the light, I was able to look through the thick forest of Cryptocryne to see a thick plaque of eggs deposited at the base of some driftwood. A couple of days later I used the flashlight again to find the wrigglers. Boring tool, but without it I wouldn’t have those fry.

I have a 150-gallon tank with a wet/dry system. Wet/dry filters are great, but I was having a hard time keeping the pre-filter clean. Uneaten food (Doromin sticks and floating pellets), quickly clogged the foam pre-filter. My solution was a $3.85 floating feeding ring. The foam keeps the ring afloat and my Frontosa haven’t been able to dislodge it yet.

I like planted tanks and that means having adequate lighting. I use standard fluores- cent shop lights stocked with Gro-Lite bulbs over each tank. The light is great for the plants, but is also very good at growing algae! I’ve tried a variety of algae scrapers, algae magnets, algae pads, but I haven’t yet found anything as effective as a good old single-edged razor blades. I buy them in a 100-pack from a nearby True Value hard- ware store for about five bucks. I use a new blade each week when I do my tank maintenance. A minor concession to convenience is that I do keep around a couple of blade holders. These come in fluorescent colors which makes them much easier to find when you drop them in your tank. I always scrape the tank walls before I do my water changes. Once you drop the water level, it seems that the green stuff gets a lot harder to remove.

Old toothbrushes often find their way down to my fishroom. They still perform better than any expensive filter brush I’ve used, and you can’t beat the price. For really small items, try a kid-size toothbrush we have a lot of these around, too you can clean some really tight places.

Sometimes little things can save you from having to think a lot. I usually do my water changes on Saturday mornings while trying to take care of a one year old, so I get easily distracted. I usually change about 30–50% water change on every tank. Each tank needs a different amount of dechlorinator and it’s hard to remember how much to put in. For under a dollar, I purchased a Garden Measure at a local nursery. This small graduated plastic measure is marked off in both teaspoons and milliliters. You will also find free graduated measures with kid’s cough syrup and products like Nyquil. I used a permanent marker to write the gallon equivalents next to the teaspoons on the Garden Measure. Now that I measure everything exactly, I find that I use less and save money. A gallon of Novaqua is about $30, so it pays to measure exactly.

I was talking to my wife Sharon the other day, and I remarked to her that I thought I had found every way there was to flood our basement floor when I do my water changes! I had spilled buckets of water, forgot to turn off the Python, left the plug in the sink and had it overflow and a variety of other idiotic methods. To Sharon, the glass is always half full and she was sure that there were lots more ways to turn my fishroom floor into a swimming pool.

Of course, she was right! I came home from a long business trip and looked into my 6-month-old, black-sealed 25 gallon aquarium and noticed that it was only halfway full of water. I was really tired and pulled out the Shopvac, broke down the tank, moved the fish, etc.

Spurred to action, I purchased a water alarm for a bout fifteen bucks. The tiny box is powered by a 9-volt battery and when it detects water, it emits a piercing alarm. You will find them in the home improvement centers located near the sump pumps. If your home has a sump pump, believe me, you’ll want more than one!

I like to feed my dwarf plecos (Ancistrus sp.) some vegetable matter every week or so. I tried a variety of veggie clips without much luck. I guess a dozen plecos and several cichlids attacking a half zucchini was too much to ask these products to withstand. I gave up on the store bought solution. Now, I rubber band the zucchini to a heavy piece of slate and put it that the tank. The fish like it and I now I don’t have zuchinni islands floating around my tanks.

Recently, I had the unenviable task of trying to remove a large Geophagus that was bullying my Frontosas in my 150. In my heavily landscaped tank, this was no easy task. After twenty fruitless minutes trying to coax the fish out of the rock work, I got an idea. I grabbed a 36” piece of rigid one-eight inch plastic tubing, and blew into cave where the fish was hiding. Success! Scared by the bubbles, he moved right out and I was able to catch him easily. Cost for the tubing? Under a dollar.

Sometimes the simplest solutions are both cheaper and better. So, look around your fish room and try to discover the mundane, but effective solution. 

SIX QUESTIONS WITH CICHLID AUTHOR AD KONINGS

Interview by Rick Borstein

GCCA’S CICHLID CHATTER — MARCH 1999

Tell us about yourself... how did you get started with Cichlids?

When I was born in 1956, I didn’t have gills, yet— unfortunately as, at an age of 2, I al- most drowned in the goldfish pond of my grandma. It was not until I was twelve that I got my first aquarium. Not long after that I got more, stocked with the first Tanganyikan cichlids that were available in the Netherlands. I made all the mistakes that novice aquarists make today, but experience was built up. During my biology study, I helped out on Saturdays at Verduijn Cichlids, at that time, Europe’s best assorted cichlid shop. My first trip to Africa was to Malawi in 1980 and from then on I was hooked on “cichlids in the wild”.

In the last ten years, I have visited Lake Malawi and Tanganyika more than once a year and I am slowly developing “the cichlid picture” in my mind. Coupled with yearly trips to Mexico, I’m getting an idea how cichlids do in the natural environment. After 42 tanks in Germany, my wife allows me only two in El Paso; the first is almost 500 gallons...

You’ve been diving and observing cichlids in Africa for many years. Can you share with our members an interesting story of finding new cichlids?

For many years, I have been publishing books and articles on Malawi cichlids in German and in Germany. Some other authors in Germany don’t like that and try to outdo me. One of them, let’s call him Andreas, even tried to copy every single step I took in getting photos of Malawi cichlids. When I went for the first time to the Tanzanian part of the lake, that same person managed to go a few weeks earlier and got a boat from the same fish collector as I did. I was with Martin Geerts and Laif DeMason, who owned the boats all of us were using, was with us as well. At Manda, halfway through our trip, we chanced to meet Andreas and since our visit was a surprise for him, he couldn’t conceal a new fish he collected in the area we were supposed to go to next. In a little baby swimming pool, he had little a blue-black barred mbuna which resembled Pseudotropheus saulosi males. He refused to tell us where he found them even though the diver, who caught the fish, was on Laif’s payroll. Laif’s partner in Tanzania, Erling, agreed with Andreas, who was leaving the country in a few days, that he would take these new fish home! Laif was very angry because Andreas was using his boats and his divers and now that a new and exciting new mbuna was found, he wasn’t even able to get it. Worse, someone else was going to breed the fish and make money on the European market. Andreas and Erling left with the lake steamer to Itungi port, where Laif’s fish house was. Since Andreas wanted to visit a crater lake north of Itungi port, the two of them left for a couple of days. In the meantime, Laif took the next lake steamer —in those days there were two services a week— and steamed up north, to Itungi. In the fishhouse, he found the little mbuna and added a few big predators to the tank after he made sure that there were no females among them. Andreas, was upset —we later heard— but still took the remaining fish with him in a box to Germany. He desperately wanted someone to name this fish after him and also had preserved material. Since his voyage would take him through Malawi (shorter than flying out of Tanzania), he was faced with a very cold check-in agent at Lilongwe airport. Nobody is allowed to take live fish out of Malawi, no exceptions! Whatever he did, there was no way he could take the fish with him. Therefore he asked the driver and manager of Laif’s operation in Tanzania, Freddy, if he would take the fish back and ship them the next week with the proper documentation. Freddy agreed. Unfortunately on his way back to Tanzania, Freddy’s had car trouble and he had to stay overnight in Malawi, in the highlands (cold nights). You guessed it— the fish were dead the next morning. So, Andreas only had preserved specimens left. In the meantime, Laif, Martin, and I continued our trip and also found the fish, collected it and preserved some specimens. I thought it a good idea to quickly name this species after Laif — he had done so much for me and other hobbyists by making available Tanzanian cichlids— before someone else could publish a description naming the fish in honor of Andreas. So I did and that is the story of Pseudotropheus demasoni.

Are there any current or forthcoming environmental issues that concern you as an observer and writer about African cichlids? What are they and what is the risk?

The environmental issue in Lake Malawi is the overfishing done by the local population. There is exponential [population] growth in Malawi and food is scarce. More and more Africans revert to fishing on the lake, just for their own families. There is nothing we can or should do about it. The situation is better in the Mozambique and Tanzanian part of the lake. Fishing on Lake Tanganyika is very extensive in the southern section, which belongs to Zambia, and many species have been lost from that area. Other parts of the lake are in relatively good shape. Fortunately, the infrastructure of the surrounding countries is very poor so that big industry is not likely going to settle on the shores of these lakes and pollute the water.

You often speak of interesting fish behaviors that you observe while diving. What can we do as aquarists to promote natural behavior in our tanks? What cichlids might respond best to changes? What fish will be a continuing problem in regards to eliciting natural behaviors?

The best way to promote natural behavior is to provide the fish with a natural environment. Therefore, I write books. I tell you how the fish lives and what it needs and the aquarist has to use his or her imagination in trying to copy that. I under- stand that a complete natural environment cannot be created in your living room, but you can go a long way. In principle, the fishes that can be accommodated with relatively little space do best in an aquarium. Fishes that are large and territorially aggressive, such as Petrochromis species, are not good aquarium fishes— they want to show their natural behavior!

You’ve traveled extensively and met cichlid hobbyists in clubs around the world. What differences have you noticed between hobbyists and clubs in the US and around the world? Similarities? Recommendations for our members and club?

Granted that an aquarium is always unnatural, there are many possibilities to create a very natural looking environment for your fishes. And my idea of a modern aquarium is a “slice from the wild”, a most naturally looking habitat for fishes. Unfortunately, a great number of US hobbyists, even though they love their fish, do not know or do not want to spend the effort and money to create such an environ- ment. We must not forget that we don’t really know whether or not a fish is dis- tressed because the shelter given to him consists of a gray plastic pipe instead of a rocky cave. The issue here is that such a fish is given a shelter or is given the amount of room and compatible room mates. And in this area, regrettably, many aquarists fall short. If a hobbyist is interested in e.g. Tanganyika cichlids, he or she is not going to try to keep all 200 different species. The big boom for cichlids happened about ten years ago when a lot of people could make money with breeding some, at that time, rare species, but now these species are not rare any longer and we are back to those hobbyists that enjoy keeping a good-looking aquarium. And, I might add, those numbers are growing. There is nothing more pleasing than a beautifully decorated aquarium with healthy fishes in it. Even for non-aquarists such a setup is a joy to watch! A friend of mine in Sweden deals in those very natural looking rocky backgrounds and he says that the sale of those very expensive —but also very natural— backgrounds in Scandinavia is skyrocketing. The reason seems simple— people want to have a “slice of the wild” and now, it seems, they can get it! As I see it, the cichlid enthusiast of the next century has a single, large tank of more than 100 gallons with a decoration which equals that of the natural environment of the fishes he/she is keeping. The fish in this tank of the future are compatible with the artificial environment and with the other tank mates. The peripheral systems, such as pumps, filtration, heating, are state of the art and keep the quality of the water at its best. Everything is automated so that the aquarists and his/her family can fully enjoy the tank without the weekly water changing and cleaning chores.

You’re an author, speaker and publisher and acknowledged cichlid expert in our hobby What’s next for Ad Konings? What is your next challenge?

I don’t see writing and speaking about the cichlids as a challenge. I’m a hobbyist like anyone who reads this and I love to observe and to think cichlids. So my next challenge is— more cichlids!

Editor’s Note: I recommend that you visit http://www.cichlidpress.com which is the web site for Ad’s publishing company. On the site, you can learn more about collect- ing cichlids in Africa and even get a look at the accommodations available for your own cichlid safari! 

SUPPLEMENTING NEWLY HATCHED ARTEMIA

GCCA’S CICHLID CHATTER — MAY 1999

by Bill Vannerson with contributions from David Kawahigashi and Eric Lund

There was a discussion on several Internet Killifish email lists regarding supple menting newly hatched baby brine shrimp (BBS), Artemia, with vitamins or cal- cium. The results of that discussion brought two important points to light for fish keepers of any species. One, hobbyists can supplement their BBS to add valuable nutrients to their fish, both fry and adults. Two, the power of the internet as a resource. 

Supplementing BBS

Supplementing live food is nothing new. Many hobbyists have been adding vitamins to their worm cultures before feeding to fish and, to a lesser extent, adult brine shrimp as well. The strategy is to have the supplement ingested by the food and then by the fish when they consume the food. The debate on the mailing lists started when some- one questioned the effectiveness of applying this technique to BBS. Would supple- ments added to the hatching water be ingested by brine shrimp nauplii and then consumed by the fish? Or would the supplement simply stay suspended in the hatch- ing water without providing and additional value to our fish?

The answer comes down to whether or not newly hatched Artemia will consume the supplement. The answer is yes, but not right away. Artemia are filter feeders but don’t start feeding until after their second molt, referred to as the instar 2 stage.

According to David Kawahigashi at San Francisco Bay Brand, the commercial fisheries have been practicing this for quite a while. “Supplementing nutritional components, such as vitamins or calcium, into live brine shrimp has been practiced by aquaculture hatcheries for around 10 years. This bio-enrichment or bioencapsulation of brine shrimp nauplii (instar 2 or adults) began using emulsified fish oils containing high HUFA’s or highly unsaturated fatty acids for marine finfish and crustacean larvae. This ‘break- through’ enabled the culture of many other new marine species to be developed (flounder, sea bass, tuna, ornamental marine sp.).”

Why Supplement

Eric Lund, researcher from University of Wisconsin, Madison, explains, “Briefly, salt- water fish all require a fatty acid that is common in marine fish oils called DHA (docosahexanoic acid) in their diet. They cannot make it from precursors, so it must be present in their food. Freshwater fish have a limited ability to make DHA from a particular precursor fatty acid of the omega-3 variety (linolenic acid), but they too can grow and reproduce well on a diet that includes DHA.”

“Brine shrimp are a great food for all small carnivorous fish, but they contain virtually no DHA. Marine fish larvae fed only Artemia exhibit mass mortality a few days after they start feeding. Aquaculture operations get around this problem by adding an emulsion of phospholipids rich in DHA to newly hatched Artemia. The Artemia eat the emulsion (more of it also sticks to the outside of their bodies). The Artemia are then fed to the fish or can then be kept refrigerated for up to three days.”

Enriching or bioencapsulation Artemia is essential for marine fish, but not for freshwater fish. Then why bother at all? Eric further explains, “I do believe, however, that for some delicate killies [and other freshwater fish] that experience high moralities before sexing out, that enriching Artemia may be of some benefit. Another tactic worth trying is to feed enriched Artemia to the adults for several weeks prior to breeding them. In other species, fish eggs with low levels of DHA generally have poorer survivorship to first feeding than eggs that are rich in DHA. Giving females a diet high in DHA allows them to put more DHA into their eggs. As you all know, weak and feeble killie fry can be the result of several factors including inbreeding, bad water conditions and improper incu- bation conditions, but poor parental nutrition may play a role as well.”

Symptoms of Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency

The essential fatty acid end product, DHA, is an important component of cell mem- branes in retinal tissue (eyes), neural tissue and cardiac tissue. Deficiency symptoms may include:

  • Sudden fright syndrome— Fish, usually juveniles, go into shock or twitch convulsively when frightened.

  • Poor visual acuity— reduced ability to locate prey

  • Worn fins

  • Poor growth rates

  • Poor egg viability

  • High mortality rates under stressful conditions such as shipping

    Note that factors other than essential fatty acid deficiency can cause all of these symptoms. Essential fatty acid deficiency is not a problem with most freshwater fish fed a varied diet. It is possible, however, that supplementation with a lipid emulsion may increase growth rates, fecundity and fry survivorship. So, if you are having problems raising a particular species, it may be worth a try.

    How to Supplement

    There are three ways you can feed your fish bioenriched shrimp; buy enriched frozen shrimp, enrich live adult shrimp or enrich newly hatched nauplii.

  • Bioenriched frozen shrimp
    Bioenriched frozen shrimp are available but may be difficult to find. David Kawahigashi explains, “Although we do not market any enrichment formula, we do enrich and freeze live adult
    Artemia with a HUFA formula and Spirulina algae for the aquaculture and aquarium markets. However, almost all of the sales for these two enriched products go to the aquaculture market due to the “unawareness” of the benefits of bioenrichment in the aquarium trade.”

  • Enrich live adults
    Enriching live adults is not difficult. Just add the supplement to brine shrimp 12-16 before feeding fish.

  • Enrich Nauplii
    Adding supplements to newly hatch brine shrimp is a little more complicated. Baby brine shrimp will not ingest the supplements until after the instar 2 stage begins, about 12 hours after the nauplii hatch. However, most fish breeders prefer to feed newly hatched Artemia as close to hatching as possible in order to maximize the nutritional value.

Once the cyst hatches, the nauplii begin to consume stored protein reserves, just as newborn fry live off of their egg sac. The longer you wait to feed them, the less nutritional value that’s passed on to the fish. The only way to counter act this is to feed the Artemia. This is not usually done because of difficulties in raising nauplii to adulthood. It’s just not worth the effort when one can readily purchase adult brine shrimp.

A compromise solution is to maintain two separate sources of baby brine shrimp, one that is bioenriched and one that is not but has higher protein reserves. Follow your normal routine for collecting and feeding from hatcheries that are not enriched. Re- duce the amount you would normally feed and replace with a portion from the en- riched hatcheries. Since enriching requires extra time, you may want to set up multiple hatcheries to alternate. You also may store enriched Artemia in the refrigerator for up to three days.

Quick List

Here’s a quick checklist of the steps required to produce bioenriched Artemia:

  • Prepare and hatch baby brine shrimp as normal, 24 hours for standard cysts or 16

    hours for decapsulated cysts.

  • Add bioenrichment 6 hours after hatching This will be after the instar 2 or second molt.

  • Feed within 12-16 hours or the shrimp will have digested the enhancement for- mula and you need to start over

  • Store any unused nauplii in the refrigerator for up to three days.

    The Future

    David mentions, “I am now working on bioenriching Haematococcus algae [super high astaxanthin for color enhancement] and some anti-bacterials into our live Artemia for product development. Because Artemia are non-selective and continuous filter- feeders, pretty much anything can be taken into the gut of a live Artemia, as long as the particle size is between 5 to 50 microns. Vitamin supplements must be in a non- soluble form as Artemia cannot ‘drink’ soluble components.”

    Eric Lund is also working on some new research at UWM that he’s not at liberty to discuss in detail

Selcon is a popular liquid supplement for enriching artemia nauplii.

This convenient product includes an eyedropper top for easy dosing and complete directions.

This article was originally published by the author in another journal and is presented here at the request of the author.

The Internet as an Aquarium Resource

The whole issue of enriching Artemia began as a relatively benign question posted to an Internet email lists. In a few days, input from hobbyists and experts, who are also hobbyists, poured in, adding to the collective knowledge of the group. The dynamics of this information exchange and the speed at which it was dissemi- nated is a prime example on how the power of the internet can benefit the hobby. For those of you not familiar with email or the Internet, I’ll explain.

Lists

An author of a message sends it to the list server via standard email services from his or her local Internet service provider (ISP). An ISP is company that provides Internet connection, including companies such as America Online, CompuServe and a whole host of others both large and small. The list server replicates the message and sends it out to all of the subscribers. So if there are 500 people subscribing to a particular list, then 500 people will receive a copy of the email message.

Anyone on the list can respond to the original message either privately to the origina- tor or back to the list server, where everyone can see the response. It’s best to respond back to the list if the topic of the email is of public interest, that way everyone can benefit from the shared knowledge of all of the responses. The collection of messages and the responses is referred to as a thread, as in a string of correspondence.

Subscribers to a list can be from anywhere in the world. I have seen contributions from Alaska to Australia, Hungary to Hong Kong, South America to Singapore. The only place I haven’t seen a message from is Antarctica, but I’m sure it could happen.

There are several lists that I subscribe to including Killies, KillieTalk, Live food, Apistos and Cichlids.

There are a bunch of others, including one focusing on brine shrimp alone. Visit FishLinkCentral for a more comprehensive source of lists.

Access to Experts & Speed of Information Exchange

Because threads are open conversations between fish folks from around the world, subscribers can benefit from the knowledge and opinions of some of the best experts available. David and Eric happen to be two extremely knowledge- able experts on supplementing Artemia that participate on several email lists. When the original question was posted, they both decided to freely join in and share their knowledge and expertise. Most hobbyists probably would not have known them or the expertise using traditional means of communication, such as letters —referred to as “snail mail” by Internet users. And if someone did know them, the response most likely would have been addressed to single individual, not to hundreds around the world. And the exchange was quick! Within days, literally hundreds of hobbyists learned about the benefits of supplementing BBS. There has been a lot of fanfare regarding the information age and the Internet.

 

BREEDING NEOLAMPROLOGUS MULTIFASCIATUS

by Keith Knapp for BAP

GCCA’S CICHLID CHATTER — MARCH 1999

When I first started to keep Cichlids, I had a Metaframe twenty gallon high tank. I started with Angelfish and Festivums. Later, I started to keep expensive fish with names that even the fish “experts” could not say because they didn’t have a trade name. Growing up I did not have any room to setup more than two tanks, so when I started to keep other fish I bought a ten gallon tank to fit under the twenty.

One day, I noticed seven of these small little, about one-centimeter long brown fish huddled in the corner of a dealer tank. The tank was labeled L. multi. and not knowing any infor- mation about the fish like most impulse buyers, I had to have them. I later found out after doing a lot of research that this fish was Neolamprologus multifasciatus. I took all of them home and added to them to the tank and they did very well from the beginning.

The tank was filtered by a Whisper 1 filter with the intake wrapped with a pad. I deco- rated the bare bottom tank with empty gold apple snail shells and plastic plants. I thought that all the fish had died, since I had not seen any in a few days. I went back to the store to see if they had any more and, to my luck, they had twelve. This time they were a little larger— about 1.25 cm. Once again, I bought them all. I thought that a larger group would have a better chance of surviving. When I added them to the tank, I could still find most of them. I later found out that they were hiding in the shells. So I took out the plants and added more shells, enough to cover the bottom the whole tank four centi- meters deep. When I did this, all of a sudden there were eighteen fish I could count. What had I done? Were there now too many fish in the tank?

I left the fish alone and assumed some were going to die. Well I was wrong! Within four months, there were about thirty fish. What was I going to do with them? Well, I did absolutely nothing, figuring if this works why screw it up. However, I knew some- thing was going to have to be done sooner or later. I waited until there were more than sixty fish before I pulled any of the fry out. I had to buy yet another tank to hold all of the babies. I set it up and used a sponge filter for filtration. This species is the fish that got me addicted to keeping all species of Cichlids from all over the world.

This fish is from Lake Tanganyika in eastern Africa. The lake has a high pH around 9.0, hardness around 13 dGH, and a temperature 79° F. I tried to copy this, by adding crushed coral under the snail shells. The fish stays very small— only 2.5–3.5 cm. They are a light brown in color with fifteen dark brown stripes. The fins usually will have a light yellow hue to them, and the eyes are blue colored.

Both tanks used florescent lights for seven hours a day. The fish were feed a variety of flake foods made by different manufacturers. The males are larger than the females at sexual maturity. When it is getting close to breeding time, the male starts to become more aggressive and chases the female into a shell whenever he can. My fish paired up on their own and bred monogamously in the same shell time after time. On average, they lay about twenty yellowish eggs per spawn. They are both extremely good parents and de- fend the shell and the fry. In about two weeks, you will start to see the free swimming fry in the opening of the shell. I let the parents take care of the eggs by themselves with no help from me. The fry started to eat finely crushed flake food, the same food as the adults, about four days after free swimming. Growth of the fry is slow. I recommend this fish because of its ability to live in a small tank and ease of breeding—with no interference or help from humans. Another thing to recommend this fish is the parent’s tolerance of having multiple spawns in the same tank. If I were to keep this fish again, I would do everything the same, except use a different filtering system on the breeding tank.

Editor’s Note: Keith found that these fish bred for him in a large group setting. His observations are consistent with the latest research being done on this fish by Uwe Kohler who is studying this fish for his PhD thesis in Germany:

“Observations and experiments at the Southern end of the lake showed that this fish lives in groups with several adult males and females, which jointly defend their territory of about 40 cm in diameter. Molecular genetic (microsatelite) analysis of relatedness between group members revealed that often more than one male and more than one female of the group reproduce and that reproductive males beside the alpha male are usually his offspring. The structure of this social system is most probably the conse- quences of a high predation pressure and very small chances of successful emigration.“ 

BREEDING CHALINOCHROMIS TRIFASCIATUS

By Willie Heard

I purchased a BAP bag of eight Chalinochromis trifasciatus which was brought in by Bill Constantelus. He said they spawned on January 3, 1997. I purchased them in March of 1997 and paced them in a ten gallon tank. In July of 1997 I moved them to a twenty gallon tank.

One day while making a regular water change, I noticed some of the trifasciatus hanging near the top of the tank. I grabbed a flashlight and found the reason, free swimming fry around a clay flowerpot. I guess they spawned sometime around April 19, 1998.

The parents resemble Chalinochromis popelini in color and striping. They are gold- fish-like in body sheen with long striped running from the head to the tail. The parents were fed the same diet as all of my fish. Alternately, frozen brine shrimp, Tetra Cichlid Flake, Tetra Green Conditioning Flakes, and Hikari pellets.

Water was changed every four days— one-fourth of the tank volume. No additions of any kind were added. Lake Michigan water is all I use.

The spawning tank consisted of two large pieces of desert coral rock with plenty of different size holes. I left all the fish, both parents and fry, together because I didn’t have any open tanks. Besides, I couldn’t tell which fish were the parents.

Surprisingly, everything worked out well. They are all doing fine. ■ 

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